Antibiotics, mainly the broad-spectrum varieties, not only eliminate bad bacteria (pathogens) that cause infections, but also a significant quantity of the good bacteria found in our intestines.
By reducing the amount of bacteria that help digestion, antibiotic treatments may occasionally cause diarrhea 1, 2, a symptom that may seem trivial to some, but for others could be inconvenient enough to lead them to stop their antibiotic course. In such a case, the infection is no longer treated, which could lead to complications.
BEFORE TAKING ANTIBIOTICS
The intestinal flora is diversified and rich in bacteria.
AFTER TAKING ANTIBIOTICS
The diversity and quantity of intestinal bacteria are significantly reduced, which enables pathogenic bacteria to populate the intestinal lining.
prescriptions for antibiotics are written each year in Canada3
Up to 20% of patients will experience symptoms of antibiotic-associated diarrhea4
With 2 capsules of Bio-K+ 50 Billion
reduction of 65% in cases of antibiotic-associated diarrhea5
Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a strictly anaerobic Gram+ bacillus bacteria that requires no oxygen and is highly sporulant. Linked to illness for the first time in 1978, C. difficile has been identified as a causal agent of pseudomembranous colitis (colon inflammation), which destroys the intestinal lining and is potentially fatal8, 9.
It appears that an imbalance within the intestinal flora is the main cause of infection. Antibiotics, especially of the broad spectrum variety, eliminate a significant part of the intestinal flora’s microbial diversity, and C. difficile, qualified as an opportunistic bacteria, takes advantage of this situation to multiply and release A (enterotoxin) and B (cytoxin) toxins. These two toxins are responsible for the damage to the mucous lining, the induction of inflammatory cells and the onset of diarrhea10, 11.
C. difficile is normally spread through fecal-oral contact, meaning oral contamination by bacteria from fecal matter, either directly by hand contact, or indirectly through various food or water sources. Hospitals are one of the most common sites for C. difficile contamination10, 11.
Despite the preventative measures used in hospital settings, the C. difficile bacteria remains one of the most prevalent causes of nosocomial infections, with over 700,000 cases reported in the United States every year12.
Data onClostridium difficile 4, 13, 14 :
of healthy adults and
of recently hospitalized patients
of C. difficile infections
of patients undergoing antibiotic therapy
of these patients develop a
With 2 capsules of Bio-K+ C. Difficile
reduction of 95% in cases of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea5
See how Probiotics help to reduce the risk of Clostridium Difficile bacteria associated Diarrhea in hospitalized patients.
Studies on and antibiotic and clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea
Gao, X.W., M. Mubasher, C. Zhang, C. Reifer, K. Zhang. 2010. Dose-response Efficacy of a Probiotic Formula in Reducing Antibiotic-associated Diarrhea and Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea Incidence: A Double-blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study. American Journal of Gastroenterology, 105(7):1636-1641.
Dose-response effect of the prophylaxis use of a unique probiotic formula combining Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285®, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R® and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2® on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) in adult patients.
Maziade, P.J., A. Andriessen, P. Pereira, B. Currie, E.J.C. Goldstein. 2013. Impact of adding prophylactic probiotics to a bundle of standard preventative measures for Clostridium difficile infections: enhanced and sustained decrease in the incidence and severity at a community hospital. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 29(10): 1341-1347.
Cohort study of 31,832 hospitalized patients receiving antibiotic treatment to assess the effect of Bio-K+® probiotic combined with standard prevention methods (SPM) versus SPM only on Clostridium difficile infections (CDI).
|Phase 1||(number of patients = 1,580): measure the impact of standard prevention methods.|
|Phase 2||50 to 60 milliards UFC per day of the Bio-K+® probiotic formula administered to all patients receiving antibiotic treatment.|
|Phase 3||Same intervention as in phase 2, but in a new hospital (move). Phases 2 and 3 included 4,968 patients.|
|Phase 4||25,284 patients followed the same protocol as in phases 2 and 3, with results compared to other similar hospitals in Québec.|
Sampalis, J., F. Psaradellis, and E. Rampakakis. 2010. Efficacy of a probiotic formula in the reduction of antibiotic-associated diarrhea- a placebo controlled, double-blind randomized, multicenter study. Archives of Medical Science, 6(1):56-64.
A multi-center, randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial to assess the effects of Bio-K+® on antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) in hospitalized adult patients on a 3- to 14-day prescription of antibiotics. Patients were studied throughout their treatment and for 21 days following their last dose of antibiotics.
½ bottle on the first 2 days, then 1 bottle per day throughout the antibiotic treatment + 5 days after final dose
Beausoleil, M., N. Fortier, S. Guénette, A. L'Écuyer, M. Savoie, M. Franco, J. Lachaîne, K. Weiss. 2007. Effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285 and Lactobacillus casei in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 21(11):732-736.
A randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled trial on 89 adult patients to assess the effect of a fermented milk combining Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285®, Lactobacillus casei LBC80R® and Lactobacillus rhamnosus CLR2® in the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea.
Study on the financial impact of using in a hospital setting to prevent antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections
Fansi, A.A.K., J.R. Guertin, J. LeLorier. 2012. Savings from the use of a probiotic formula in the prophylaxis of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Journal of Medical Economics, 15(1):53-60.
Summary: Pharmaco-economic analysis comparing the use of 2 doses of Bio-K+® formula (50 Billion and 100 Billion) to a placebo. This analysis was based on published data adapted to the North American context.
*When used for an average of 13 days by all patients at risk of developing antibiotic- and Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.
Study demonstrating the importance of enteric coating in encapsulated probiotic products
Millette, M., A. Nguyen, K.M. Amine and M. Lacroix. 2013. Gastrointestinal survival of bacteria in commercial probiotic products. International Journal of Probiotics & Prebiotics, 8(4): 149-156.
In vitro demonstration of the gastrointestinal survival of the main probiotic products currently available. Bio-K+® capsules’ resistance to acidity, digestive enzymes and bile salts was compared to that of several commercial encapsulated probiotics. Said resistance was assessed in an in vitro simulator using a two-step process that included gastric digestion, at a pH of 1.5 for 120 minutes (2 hours), and intestinal digestion for 180 minutes (3 hours).
Studies demonstrating the potential of in reducing cancerous cells
Baldwin, C., M. Millette, M.T. Ruiz, F.M. Luquet, D. Oth, M. Lacroix. 2010. Probiotic L. acidophilus and L. casei mix sensitize tumoral cells to 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis. Nutrition and Cancer, 62:371-378.
Summary: In vitro study demonstrating the effect of combining Bio-K+® strains in the presence of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, chemotherapeutic medication) on induced apoptosis of colon tumour cells (LS513). LS513 cells were treated for 48 hours using increasing concentrations of lactic bacteria, found in Bio-K+® products, in the presence of 100 μg/ml of 5-FU.
Karska-Wysocki, B., M. Bazo and W. Smoragiewicz. 2010. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Microbiological Research, 165(8):674-86.
Millette, M., F.M. Luquet, M.T. Ruiz, M. Lacroix. 2008. Characterization of probiotic properties of Lactobacillus strains. Dairy Science and Technology, 88: 695-708.
Millette, M., F.M. Luquet, M. Lacroix. 2007. In vitro control of selected pathogens by a Lactobacillus acidophilus and L. casei-fermented milk. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 44:314-319.